Bemben M.G., Bemben D.A., Loftiss D.D., Knehans A.W. Creatine Supplementation during Resistance Training in College Football Athletes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1667–1673. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200110000-00009. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
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Conclusions: Accumulating evidence indicates that creatine supplementation, with and without resistance training, has possible anti-sarcopenic and anti-dynapenic effects. Specifically, creatine supplementation increases aging muscle mass and strength (upper- and lower-body), possibly by influencing high-energy phosphate metabolism, muscle protein kinetics and growth factors. Creatine supplementation has shown potential to enhance bone mineral
Conclusions: Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine shuttle for adenosine triphosphate. The effective dosing for creatine supplementation includes loading with 0.3 g·kg·d for 5 to 7 days.
Kreider, R.B.; Kalman, D.S.; Antonio, J.; Ziegenfuss, T.N.; Wildman, R.; Collins, R. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2017, 14, 18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Synopsis: Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection.
Kreider, R.B.; Stout, J.R. Creatine in Health and Disease. Nutrients 2021, 13, 447.
Synopsis: The benefits of creatine monohydrate supplementation go well beyond increasing muscle Cr and PCr levels and thereby enhancing high-intensity exercise and training adaptations. Research has clearly shown several health and/or potential therapeutic benefits as we age and in clinical populations that may benefit by enhancing Cr and PCr levels.
Conclusions: there is substantial evidence to indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance training is more effective at increasing muscle strength and weightlifting performance than resistance training alone
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Saunders, B.; Elliott-Sale, K.; Artioli, G.G.; Swinton, P.A.; Dolan, E.; Roschel, H.; Sale, C.; Gualano, B. β-Alanine supplementation to improve exercise capacity and performance: A systematic review and meta-Analysis. Br. J. Sports Med. 2017, 51, 658–669. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Conclusions: Beta-alanine attenuates neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects, and preliminary evidence indicates that beta-alanine may improve tactical performance; 6) Combining beta-alanine with other single or multi-ingredient supplements may be advantageous when supplementation of beta-alanine is high enough (4–6 g daily) and long enough (minimum 4 weeks)
Wilson, J.M.; Wilson, G.J.; Zourdos, M.C.; Smith, A.E.; Stout, J. Beta-alanine supplementation improves aerobic and anaerobic indices of performance. Strength Cond. J. 2010, 32, 71–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Montgomery, S.A.; Thal, L.J.; Amrein, R. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimers disease? Int. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 2003, 18, 61–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Synopsis: The data obtained show that acetylcarnitine can have significant clinical neuroprotective effects when administered shortly after the onset of focal or global cerebral ischemia.
Maughan RJ. Fluid and electrolyte loss and replacement in exercise, In: Oxford Textbook of Sports Medicine (edited by Harries M, Williams C, Stanish WD, and Micheli LL). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Synopsis: sodium, and perhaps also of potassium, may be important for rehydration after exercise.
Synopsis: These results suggest that the fraction of the ingested fluid that was retained was directly related to the sodium concentration.
Maughan RJ, Merson SJ, Broad NP, Shirreffs SM. Fluid and electrolyte intake and loss in elite soccer players during training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14: 333–346, 2004. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.14.3.333.
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Synopsis: Restoration of water and electrolyte balance is an essential part of the recovery process after exercise that results in sweat loss. Ingestion of plain water results in a fall in plasma sodium concentration and osmolality, reducing the drive to drink and stimulating urine output. Addition of sodium and potassium to rehydration fluids will decrease urine output in the hours after rehydration.
Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM, Merson SJ, Horswill CA. Fluid and electrolyte balance in elite male football (soccer) players training in a cool environment. J Sports Sci 23: 73–79, 2005. doi:10.1080/02640410410001730115.
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Conclusions: The addition of 40 or 50 mmol/l of sodium chloride to a rehydration beverage reduced subsequent urine output, thereby providing more effective rehydration than a sodium-free drink.
Bezuglov, E.; Tikhonova, A.; Zueva, A.; Khaitin, V.; Waśkiewicz, Z.; Gerasimuk, D.; Żebrowska, A.; Rosemann, T.; Nikolaidis, P.; Knechtle, B. Prevalence and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in young male Russian soccer players in winter. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2405. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency and high level of activity in a young athlete may be the etiology to atypical multiple stress fractures. In athletes who may want to return to sport rapidly, early operative intervention and correction of vitamin D deficiency may be treatment options.
Hilger, J.; Friedel, A.; Herr, R.; Rausch, T.; Roos, F.; Wahl, D.A.; Pierroz, D.D.; Weber, P.; Hoffmann, K. A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide. Br. J. Nutr. 2014, 111, 23–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Synopsis: Vitamin D deficiency may cause deficits in strength, and lead to fatty degeneration of type II muscle fibers, which has been found to negatively correlate with physical performance. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve vitamin D status and can positively affect skeletal muscles.
Myśliwec, A.; Skalska, M.; Knechtle, B.; Nikolaidis, P.T.; Rosemann, T.; Szmigiero-Kawko, M.; Lejk, A.; Jastrzębska, J.; Radzimiński, Ł.; Wakuluk, D.; et al. Acute responses to low and high intensity exercise in type 1 diabetic adolescents in relation to their level of serum 25(OH)D. Nutrients 2020, 12, 454. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Synopsis: It is essential for athletes, both elite and recreational, to avoid vitamin D deficiency [a 25(OH)D concentration <25 nmol/l] year-round. This is particularly important when residing at latitude where UVB exposure is negligible during the winter months. Monitoring vitamin D status of athletic populations could be a useful way to identify individuals who may be at increased risk of stress fractures during intensive training and provide an opportunity to disseminate advice for improving vitamin D status. Maintaining an adequate vitamin D status may also confer additional health benefits for athletes in relation to musculoskeletal health (Lappe et al. 2008; Davey et al. 2016) and immunity (He et al. 2015).
Yagüe, M.L.P.; Yurrita, L.C.; Cabañas, M.J.C.; Cenzual, M.A.C. Role of vitamin d in athletes and their performance: Current concepts and new trends. Nutrients 2020, 12, 579. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Synopsis: The importance and versatility of vitamin D in the organism is becoming increasingly evident. VITD plays an active role in immune function, protein synthesis, muscle function, cardiovascular function, inflammatory response, cell growth and musculoskeletal regulation
Allen, L.H.; Miller, J.W.; de Groot, L.; Rosenberg, I.H.; Smith, A.D.; Refsum, H.; Raiten, D.J. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND): Vitamin B-12 Review. J. Nutr. 2018, 148 (Suppl. 4), 1995S–2027S. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Conclusions: These findings suggest a pivotal role for B12 in the control of cell growth, which may lead to coordination of cell behavior in complex multicellular systems. As key research questions emerge from host-associated and environmental microbiomes, we anticipate that B12 regulatory control of metabolism will be found to be generalizable, will be critical for coordination of individual microbe and community metabolism, and that organismal interdependencies for B12 may be pertinent to microbiome organization, stability, and overall function.
Caldeira D, Martins C, Alves LB, Pereira H, Ferreira JJ, Costa J. Caffeine does not increase the risk of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Heart. 2013;99(19):1383–9. PubMed Article Google Scholar
Conclusions Caffeine exposure is not associated with increased AF risk. Low-dose caffeine may have a protective effect.
Conclusions: Thus, the enhanced endurance performance observed in the C Trial was likely the combined effects of caffeine on lipolysis and its positive influence on nerve impulse transmission.
Kendall KL, Moon JR, Fairman CM, Spradley BD, Tai CY, Falcone PH, et al. Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, beta-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men. Nutr Res. 2014;34(5):442–9.CAS PubMed Article Google Scholar
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Conclusions: These findings suggest that the acute ingestion of this preexercise supplement may be an effective strategy for improving anaerobic performance.
Cameron M, Camic CL, Doberstein S, Erickson JL, Jagim AR. The acute effects of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement on resting energy expenditure and exercise performance in recreationally active females. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15:1. PubMed PubMed Central Article Google Scholar
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Bergstrom HC, Byrd MT, Wallace BJ, Clasey JL. Examination of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement on total volume of resistance exercise andsubsequent strength and power performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(6):1479–90. PubMed Article Google Scholar
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Synopsis: 1) Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg) and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed in higher dosages (>/= 9 mg/kg). 2.) Caffeine exerts a greater ergogenic effect when consumed in an anhydrous state as compared to coffee. 3.) It has been shown that caffeine can enhance vigilance during bouts of extended exhaustive exercise, as well as periods of sustained sleep deprivation.
Lieberman HR, Tharion WJ, Shukitt-Hale B, Speckman KL, Tulley R. Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during U.S. Navy SEAL training. Sea-Air-Land. Psychopharmacology. 2002;164(3):250–61. CAS PubMed Article Google Scholar
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Conclusion: Our present findings show novel mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of citicoline, which cooperate to decrease brain glutamate release after ischemia.
Gareri, P.; Castagna, A.; Cotroneo, A.M.; Putignano, D.; Conforti, R.; Santamaria, F.; Marino, S.; Putignano, S. The Citicholinage Study: Citicoline Plus Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Aged Patients Affected with Alzheimer’s Disease Study. J. Alzheimer’s Dis. 2017, 56, 557–565. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Nurk, E.; Refsum, H.; Bjelland, I.; Drevon, C.A.; Tell, G.S.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollset, S.E.; Engedal, K.; Nygaard, H.A.; Smith, D.A. Plasma free choline, betaine and cognitive performance: The Hordaland Health Study. Br. J. Nutr. 2013, 109, 511–519. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Conclusions: Citicoline reduced cognitive dysfunction and disturbances of visual/spatial coordination as well as had a positive effect on the emotional sphere decreasing the level of depression.